A man sustained serious injuries to his head after being struck by a hammer in Letterkenny at the weekend.The man was set upon at around 1am on Sunday morning in the Pearse Road area, close to the Riverside apartments.A man is believed to have been attacked by two males, who used weapons, including a hammer, during the course of the attack. Garda Rafferty asked in a weekly community alert for anyone who lives in the area and who saw or heard anything to make contact with Gardaí at Letterkenny on 074-9167100 or the Garda Confidential Line on 1800-666-111.Gardaí are appealing for witnesses to two serious assaults in Letterkenny in the early hours of Sunday morning.It is not believed that the two are connected.At around 4.30am, a male was set upon at Oldtown Road. The man was waiting on a lift at Lower Main Street when he was approach by a group of makes and one female. He was verbally abused before being attacked at Old Town Road where he received ‘quite a few injuries’, Garda Rafferty said.Again, witnesses are asked to contact Gardaí at Letterkenny on 074-9167100 or the Garda Confidential Line on 1800-666-111.Man injured in Letterkenny hammer attack – two serious assaults at weekend was last modified: April 17th, 2019 by Chris McNultyShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:assaultGardaiHAMMERletterkennyLetterkenny GardaiOld Town RoadPearse Road
Each spacecraft that has explored the outer solar system has yielded surprises. It is common knowledge that Voyager scientists were blown away by the first views of active moons they expected to be cold and old. Recent discoveries have only intensified the surprises. Richard Kerr wrote recently in Science,1 Why is there geology on Saturn’s icy satellites? Where did these smallish moons get the energy to refresh their impact-battered surfaces with smoothed plains, ridges, and fissures? These questions have nagged at scientists since the Voyager flybys in the early 1980s, and the Cassini spacecraft’s recent discovery that Saturn’s Enceladus is spouting like an icy geyser has only compounded the problem. (Emphasis added in all quotes.) (See 11/28/2005 entry about the discovery of eruptions on Enceladus, and 08/30/2005, 07/14/2005 and 03/04/2005 about its young surface and active south pole.) The temperature of a body depends primarily on four factors: its nearness to the sun (related to its composition), its mass (related to volume), the amount of tidal flexing imposed on it, and the amount of radioactive heating in its interior. Trouble is, small bodies short in all four quantities are looking pretty lively. Several small, icy moons at great distances from the sun show young surfaces and eruptive activity: these include Europa, Triton, and most recently Enceladus. Io, of course, has a great deal of volcanic activity which is only partly explained by tidal flexing. Titan is more massive than the other Saturnian moons, but its surface looks very young and active; it may have active cryovolcanos. And unlike all the other moons, it has a dense atmosphere that is quickly eroding. While many of the other moons appear quiescent, some, like Ariel, Miranda, Tethys, Iapetus, show evidence of recent surface activity. Planetary scientists never question the age of these bodies. They unanimously assume that they are 4.6 billion years old – the consensus view of the age of our solar system. (This is sometimes stated as “geologic time”). Presumably, the planets and moons all formed near the beginning, 4.6 billion years ago, and have been cooling off ever since (but see 09/12/2005). The small bodies should cool much more rapidly than the planets, because as radius decreases, surface area decreases by the square, but volume by the cube. The smaller the body, therefore, the greater the surface area for the interior heat to leak out. It’s interesting to watch how planetary scientists deal with surprises. It takes creative modeling to keep a moon active that should have frozen solid billions of years ago. Here’s what the planetary scientists have been up to: Enceladus: Stoke the Furnace: Throw some radioactive aluminum-26 into the core furnace; maybe that will help. Kerr reported that the Cassini team tried this to keep Enceladus warm enough to spout. Others find this interesting, but are not convinced: “At each stage [of the calculations], there are several knobs you can twiddle,” said Francis Nimmo (UC Santa Cruz). “There are so many free parameters it’s hard to make a strong statement.” Why the other nearby moons, such as Mimas (same diameter) are not erupting is a problem, but Enceladus does appear to have higher density and therefore a larger core for storing the hot Al-26. Nevertheless, the buzz around JPL is that nobody really has a good answer yet. Enceladus is a problem moon that has scientists scratching their heads. Update 03/09/2003: A JPL Press Release says there may even be liquid water erupting, like cold versions of the geysers of Yellowstone. “We realize that this is a radical conclusion,” said the imaging team lead. Science Dec. 10 had a special section on Enceladus with a dozen articles from the Cassini team exploring all aspects of the bizarre moon, from images to magnetic fields, from infrared and ultraviolet measurements to in situ particle measurements. “Finding such active geology on such a tiny moon is a big surprise,” said Joanne Baker in the introductory article. The only other active bodies in the solar system (Earth, Triton, Io) are larger than Enceladus. One model was offered to show how pockets of liquid water might form under the surface, but most scientists are saying this is a huge mystery. Iapetus: Slam on the Brakes: The big midriff bulge on Saturn’s yin-yang moon Iapetus presents a different problem. Scientists are dealing with this by having it start with a high spin rate with a good dose of aluminum-26 to keep it deformable. If tidal interactions with Saturn forced it to spin down rapidly, maybe the bulge was able to freeze in place. For more on Iapetus, see 01/07/2005. Titan: Hide the Goods: Planetary scientists were surprised, and perhaps disappointed, to find no liquid oceans of methane on the surface of Titan. The Huygens Probe landed on a dry lake bed, and the Cassini orbiter has failed to detect liquid on the surface. At current erosion rates, the atmospheric methane would be depleted in 10 to 100 million years – just 2% its assumed age. Clearly, scientists who want to keep Titan old need a source of methane to replenish the atmosphere. A new theory was just published in a letter to Nature this week.2 Jonathan Lunine, who has puzzled over Titan for over 20 years, has moved the methane reservoir underground: Saturn’s largest satellite, Titan, has a massive nitrogen atmosphere containing up to 5 per cent methane near its surface. Photochemistry in the stratosphere would remove the present-day atmospheric methane in a few tens of millions of years. Before the Cassini-Huygens mission arrived at Saturn, widespread liquid methane or mixed hydrocarbon seas hundreds of metres in thickness were proposed as reservoirs from which methane could be resupplied to the atmosphere over geologic time. Titan fly-by observations and ground-based observations rule out the presence of extensive bodies of liquid hydrocarbons at present, which means that methane must be derived from another source over Titan’s history. Here we show that episodic outgassing of methane stored as clathrate hydrates within an icy shell above an ammonia-enriched water ocean is the most likely explanation for Titan’s atmospheric methane. The other possible explanations all fail because they cannot explain the absence of surface liquid reservoirs and/or the low dissipative state of the interior. On the basis of our models, we predict that future fly-bys should reveal the existence of both a subsurface water ocean and a rocky core, and should detect more cryovolcanic edifices. (See also: ESA report and Science Now. For earlier stories on Titan, see 12/05/2005, 06/09/2005, 05/18/2005, 04/08/2005 and 03/11/2005). Cassini just made its 13th pass over Titan on Monday, and has many more passes this year, so we shall have to wait and see. For dramatic images of the most recent flyby, showing sharp boundaries between dark and light areas, see the Cassini Titan-11 flyby page and raw images: here is a good sample. While modelers have many dials and switches to fiddle with, one factor may be complicating the matter. Kubo et al. did experiments with a high-pressure form of ice known as Ice II and found that it deforms, or “creeps” much faster than previously thought – by up to two orders of magnitude, depending on the grain size. Their paper in Science3 was joined by a commentary from Peter Sammonds,4 who agreed that “This realization could change our understanding of the dynamics and evolution of these planetary bodies” What this implies specifically was not made clear. Perhaps it means that an icy moon’s interior would reach equilibrium in less time. You figure it out: Kubo et al. argue that grain size-sensitive creep of Ice I and Ice II plausibly dominates the evolution and dynamics of the interiors of the medium to large icy moons of the outer solar system. Ice II is considerably more viscous than Ice I. The transition from Ice I to Ice II, which occurs at depth, is accompanied by an increase in viscosity of four orders of magnitude. If grain size-sensitive creep does not operate, then the increase in viscosity would be six orders of magnitude. So if grain size-sensitive creep is not taken into account as a deformation mechanism, estimates for viscosities of the interiors of the icy moons are off by about two orders of magnitude. Such a difference would have profound implications for interpreting their evolution and dynamics. (See also Lawrence Livermore press release.) Whatever this means, modelers apparently didn’t set the knob right on this parameter before now. 1Richard Kerr, “How Saturn’s Icy Moons Get a (Geologic) Life,” Science, 6 January 2006: Vol. 311. no. 5757, p. 29, DOI: 10.1126/science.311.5757.29. 2Gabriel Tobie, Jonathan Lunine and Christophe Sotin, “Episodic outgassing as the origin of atmospheric methane on Titan,” Nature 440, 61-64 (2 March 2006) | doi:10.1038/nature04497. 3Kubo et al., “Grain Size-Sensitive Creep in Ice II,” Science, 3 March 2006: Vol. 311. no. 5765, pp. 1267 – 1269, DOI: 10.1126/science.1121296. 4Peter Sammonds, “Creep and Flow on the Icy Moons of the Outer Planets,” Science, No sooner did the word “water” appear in news reports about Enceladus, when reporters started talking about “life.” The press release twists the evidence for a young Enceladus into evidence for old evolution: “Scientists still have many questions. Why is Enceladus currently so active? Are other sites on Enceladus active? Might this activity have been continuous enough over the moon’s history for life to have had a chance to take hold in the moon’s interior?” Geological activity is not necessarily related to biological activity. Enceladus is not a case for OOL, but for YEC. Who are these spin doctors that write press blurbs like this gem from a Cassini press agent: “A masterpiece of deep time and wrenching gravity, the tortured surface of Saturn’s moon Enceladus and its fascinating ongoing geologic activity tell the story of the ancient and present struggles of one tiny world.” Get real. Does a model correspond to reality? This is an interesting question in philosophy of science. Some things are too difficult to observe and explain. A model can provide a “cartoon” of the problem to help make it manageable (or provide comic relief). Based on the model, scientists make predictions, or open the model to falsification. Confidence in the model grows if it passes these tests. Unfortunately, the more switches, dials and free parameters in the model, the more the model becomes immune to falsification, and the more other models might make similar predictions. Consequently, it becomes increasingly difficult to know if the model really connects with the real world, or is just a convenient fiction. What we wonder is why there is a padlock on the rheostat labeled, “age of the solar system.” Rumor has it the Darwin Party put it there.(Visited 23 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Despite its continuous efforts to improve the standard of domestic cricket, the Indian cricket Board doesn’t seem to be getting the right personnel for the job. This is evident from a large number of aspirants who failed the examination for online scores.As many as 16 of the 42 candidates flunked the examination held recently. In terms of percentage, it translates into a scary 38.09 failed candidates. The online scorers were required to score at least 80 per cent marks, or 120 out of a maximum of 150, were declared successful.This news comes on the heels of a similar disappointing outcome of the curators’ certification examination held in July in Mohali. In that examination, 14 out of 31 participants – or 45.16 per cent – had flunked, causing concern, if not alarm, for the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI).A scorer who was declared successful, interestingly, said that the examination was not too tough. “Any exam, as such, is tough, for that matter. All the candidates who were invited by the BCCI for the examination were imparted proper coaching in Nagpur before the test. A top scorer from Mumbai took the classes,” the scorer told Mail Today.The BCCI wants at least three good online scorers in each of its 30 associations so that they could meet the requirement at all home matches of the various Board’s tournaments, seniors as well as juniors. Some associations, particularly in the east zone, don’t have many scorers who fit the bill.”The main purpose of the BCCI to conduct the examination was to fill the vacancies in the east zone, where there has been a dearth of online scorers. Several states in that zone don’t have either good online scorers or have too few,” the scorer pointed.advertisementBCCI has increased the remuneration of manual and online scorers as well as video analysts.But the BCCI would be disappointed that the end result was not to what it would have liked to see.For some reason, only 12 scorers from east zone turned up. All three candidates from Jharkhand passed the examination while Tripura had a mixed bag, as two of its candidates were successful and two failed. Assam was the worst affected as three of the four candidates failed (all names are being withheld to protect identities) and the only from Orissa flunked.A source, however, said that the failed candidates would get another opportunity to take the examination.Mumbai was the most successful association as four of its candidates – including three women – passed while three failed.The BCCI might not have got the desired results, but it is doing its bit to encourage both manual and online scorers, besides the video analysts, by increasing their remuneration from this season. This hike is for both domestic as well as international matches.The manual and online scorers till last year used to receive Rs 3,000 per day for a domestic match and now they are getting Rs 5,000. Their dearness allowance too has been increased from Rs 500 to Rs 750. Video analysts are now receiving Rs 7,500 instead of Rs 5,000.For outstation matches, manual and online scorers as well as the video analyst will get Rs 1,000 extra. And for internationals matches that will be played at home, a scorer will now get Rs 10,000 per day instead of Rs 7,500. There is no dearness allowance for international matches.
ATHENS, Greece (AP) — First-half goals from Alberto Botia, Tarik Elyounoussi and Brown Ideye secured defending champion Olympiakos an easier-than-expected 3-0 win over rival Panathinaikos in the Greek league on Sunday.After eight matches, Olympiakos extended its lead over Panathinaikos to seven points and already looks the clear favorite for a 19th league title in 21 seasons.Botia opened the scoring with a header off Costas Fortounis’ corner in the 21st, five minutes before Elyounoussi made it 2-0 with a close strike. Fortounis’ free kick fed Ideye for a header to complete victory in the 44th.In the 60th, Panathinaikos wasted a chance when Cristian Ledesma sent a penalty kick wide.Also Sunday, Panionios beat PAOK 1-0, Panetolikos defeated Larissa 2-1 and Kerkyra prevailed 2-1 over Veria.TweetPinShare0 Shares
HUMBOLDT, Sask. – Mary-Jane Wilkinson is worried about what will happen to families and a community grieving the dead and the injured in a tragic hockey bus crash earlier this month in Saskatchewan.Funerals have been held and residents of Humboldt where the junior league Broncos are based face the return to their daily routines.Wilkinson, the manager of the Canalta Hotel, experienced grief herself when she lost her husband at a young age. She was left to raise her son Richard by herself.Dealing with life after a tragedy can be the worst part following a loss, she said.“When everybody leaves, which eventually everybody does, then you’re starting your new normal and it’s very tough. The community is going to really have to keep working to make sure the people heal … with the support from the community,” said Wilkinson.“Once everybody goes away, they’re actually dealing with it for the first time alone, and I know what that feels like.”The Broncos were on their way to a playoff game in Nipawin, Sask., on April 6 when their bus and a semi-trailer collided at a rural intersection. Sixteen people, including 10 players, died and 13 were injured. The driver of the truck wasn’t hurt.The deputy reeve of the Rural Municipality of Connaught where the crash occurred said the immediate aftermath has been hard for many people.“One of our councillors that sits at this table with us was one of the first on scene. He’s struggling,” said Ian Boxall. “The biggest thing right now (is) making sure that these people have what they need to get through this.”Former NHL player Sheldon Kennedy was part of the 1986 Swift Current Broncos crash in which four of his Western Hockey League teammates died.“There’s the shock, and then there’s the grief, and then … part of healing with anything is acceptance,” said Kennedy.“We’ve got to find ways to manage those negative thoughts, or those images … or the guilt. We know a lot of guilt comes with people who have come through these types of tragedies.”The Psychology Association of Saskatchewan is urging people to reach out for help. Dr. Regan Hart, with the association, said the first thought is with the friends and family of the victims. But she said a tragedy like this is far-reaching.“It could be quite wide-ranging in that sense because a lot of these kids were quite active members of their school groups and their communities,” she said.“When it’s someone you know in such a tragic kind of accident, I think it kind of hits close to home for a lot of people especially in a small province and smaller communities that we have here in Saskatchewan.”The association compiled a list of mental-health resources for the general public: http://bit.ly/2HjoZIX— By Bill Graveland in Calgary. Follow @BillGraveland on Twitter