ALERT 31 – HURRICANE IRMA – 12AM UPDATE

first_imgFacebook Twitter Google+LinkedInPinterestWhatsApp#Bahamas, September 9, 2017 – Nassau – ……IRMA MAKING LANDFALL ON THE CAMAGUEY ARCHIPELAGO OF CUBA AS A CATEGORY 5 HURRICANE……HURRICANE WARNINGS FOR THE ISLANDS OF THE SOUTHEAST BAHAMAS EXCLUDING RAGGED ISLAND HAS BEEN DISCONTINUED.    HENCE THE ALL CLEAR HAS BEEN GIVEN FOR THE ISLANDS OF INAGUA, MAYAGUANA, CROOKED ISLAND, ACKLINS, LONG CAY AND SAMANA CAY.HURRICANE WARNINGS REMAIN IN EFFECT FOR THE NORTHWEST AND CENTRAL BAHAMAS AND RAGGED ISLAND.    THIS INCLUDES THE ISLANDS OF GRAND BAHAMA, ABACO, BIMINI, THE BERRY ISLANDS, ANDROS, NEW PROVIDENCE, ELEUTHERA, EXUMA, LONG ISLAND, CAT ISLAND, RUM CAY, SAN SALVADOR, AND RAGGED ISLAND.  A HURRICANE WARNING MEANS THAT HURRICANE CONDITIONS ARE AFFECTING OR CAN AFFECT THE AFOREMENTIONED AREAS WITHIN 36 HOURS. AT 11:00PM EDT, THE CENTER OF HURRICANE IRMA WAS LOCATED NEAR LATITUDE 22.1 DEGREES NORTH AND LONGITUDE 77.7 DEGREES WEST OR ABOUT 110 MILES WEST OF RAGGED ISLAND, 120 MILES SOUTH OF MAR BAY ANDROS AND 201 MILES SOUTH OF NEW PROVIDENCE.IRMA IS MOVING TOWARD THE WEST NEAR 13 MPH. A TURN TOWARD THE NORTHWEST IS EXPECTED BY LATE SATURDAY. ON THE FORECAST TRACK, THE CENTER OF IRMA SHOULD MOVE NEAR THE NORTH COAST OF CUBA THROUGH SATURDAY, NEAR THE FLORIDA KEYS SUNDAY MORNING, AND THEN NEAR THE SOUTHWEST COAST OF FLORIDA SUNDAY AFTERNOON.MAXIMUM SUSTAINED WINDS HAVE INCREASED TO NEAR 160 MILES PER HOUR WITH HIGHER GUSTS.    IRMA IS ONCE AGAIN A CATEGORY FIVE (5) HURRICANE ON THE SAFFIR-SIMPSON HURRICANE WIND SCALE. SOME FLUCTUATIONS IN INTENSITY ARE LIKELY DURING THE NEXT DAY OR TWO, BUT IRMA IS EXPECTED TO REMAIN A POWERFUL HURRICANE AS IT APPROACHES FLORIDA.HURRICANE FORCE WINDS EXTEND OUTWARD UP TO 70 MILES FROM THE CENTER AND TROPICAL STORM FORCE WINDS EXTEND OUTWARD UP TO 185 MILES FROM THE CENTER.TROPICAL STORM WINDS ARE NOW OCCURRING OVER ANDROS, LONG ISLAND, EXUMA, RAGGED ISLAND, CAT ISLAND, SAN SALVADOR AND RUM CAY.    TROPICAL STORM FORCE WINDS ARE FORECAST TO BEGIN IN NEW PROVIDENCE BY 1AM.EXTENSIVE TO SEVERE FLOODING CAN BE EXPECTED AS IRMA IS FORECAST TO PRODUCE RAINFALL AMOUNTS OF 8 TO 12 INCHES.THE COMBINATION OF DANGEROUS STORM SURGE AND LARGE DESTRUCTIVE WAVES CAN RAISE WATER LEVELS BY AS MUCH AS 15 TO 20 FEET ABOVE THE NORMAL TIDE NEAR THE EYE OF HURRICANE IRMA.    RESIDENTS LIVING NEAR THE COAST ARE ASKED TO MOVE TO HIGHER GROUND INLAND.  SMALL CRAFT OPERATORS THROUGHOUT THE BAHAMAS AND THE TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS SHOULD REMAIN IN SAFE HARBOUR.THE NEXT ALERT ON HURRICANE IRMA WILL BE ISSUED AT 03:00AM SATURDAY.ISSUED BY:  SHAYVONNE MOXEY-BONAMY Related Items: Facebook Twitter Google+LinkedInPinterestWhatsApplast_img read more

A new DielsAlder reaction

center_img This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. More information: Teng Wang et al. The pentadehydro-Diels–Alder reaction, Nature (2016). DOI: 10.1038/nature17429AbstractIn the classic Diels–Alder [4 + 2] cycloaddition reaction, the overall degree of unsaturation (or oxidation state) of the 4π (diene) and 2π (dienophile) pairs of reactants dictates the oxidation state of the newly formed six-membered carbocycle. For example, in the classic Diels–Alder reaction, butadiene and ethylene combine to produce cyclohexene. More recent developments include variants in which the number of hydrogen atoms in the reactant pair and in the resulting product is reduced by, for example, four in the tetradehydro-Diels–Alder (TDDA) and by six in the hexadehydro-Diels–Alder (HDDA) reactions. Any oxidation state higher than tetradehydro (that is, lacking more than four hydrogens) leads to the production of a reactive intermediate that is more highly oxidized than benzene. This increases the power of the overall process substantially, because trapping of the reactive intermediate can be used to increase the structural complexity of the final product in a controllable and versatile manner. Here we report an unprecedented overall 4π + 2π cycloaddition reaction that generates a different, highly reactive intermediate known as an α,3-dehydrotoluene. This species is in the same oxidation state as a benzyne. Like benzynes, α,3-dehydrotoluenes can be captured by various trapping agents to produce structurally diverse products that are complementary to those arising from the HDDA process. We call this new cycloisomerization process a pentadehydro-Diels–Alder (PDDA) reaction—a nomenclature chosen for chemical taxonomic reasons rather than mechanistic ones. In addition to alkynes, nitriles (RC≡N), although non-participants in aza-HDDA reactions, readily function as the 2π component in PDDA cyclizations to produce, via trapping of the α,3-(5-aza)dehydrotoluene intermediates, pyridine-containing products. (Phys.org)—The Diels-Alder reaction is a mainstay in organic chemistry. The reaction traditionally involves a diene and a dienophile. The diene has four carbons that are sp2 hybridized to form pi bonds. The dienophile has two sp2 hybridized carbons. The diene and dienophile undergo a cycloaddition reaction to form a cyclohexene. This reaction can be tweaked to make six-membered rings with a higher oxidation state by removing hydrogens from the reactants to make sp hybridized carbons. For example, rather than an alkene and a diene reacting, the reactants could be an alkyne and an allenyne. Citation: A new Diels-Alder reaction (2016, April 27) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-04-diels-alder-reaction.htmllast_img read more

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