Each spacecraft that has explored the outer solar system has yielded surprises. It is common knowledge that Voyager scientists were blown away by the first views of active moons they expected to be cold and old. Recent discoveries have only intensified the surprises. Richard Kerr wrote recently in Science,1 Why is there geology on Saturn’s icy satellites? Where did these smallish moons get the energy to refresh their impact-battered surfaces with smoothed plains, ridges, and fissures? These questions have nagged at scientists since the Voyager flybys in the early 1980s, and the Cassini spacecraft’s recent discovery that Saturn’s Enceladus is spouting like an icy geyser has only compounded the problem. (Emphasis added in all quotes.) (See 11/28/2005 entry about the discovery of eruptions on Enceladus, and 08/30/2005, 07/14/2005 and 03/04/2005 about its young surface and active south pole.) The temperature of a body depends primarily on four factors: its nearness to the sun (related to its composition), its mass (related to volume), the amount of tidal flexing imposed on it, and the amount of radioactive heating in its interior. Trouble is, small bodies short in all four quantities are looking pretty lively. Several small, icy moons at great distances from the sun show young surfaces and eruptive activity: these include Europa, Triton, and most recently Enceladus. Io, of course, has a great deal of volcanic activity which is only partly explained by tidal flexing. Titan is more massive than the other Saturnian moons, but its surface looks very young and active; it may have active cryovolcanos. And unlike all the other moons, it has a dense atmosphere that is quickly eroding. While many of the other moons appear quiescent, some, like Ariel, Miranda, Tethys, Iapetus, show evidence of recent surface activity. Planetary scientists never question the age of these bodies. They unanimously assume that they are 4.6 billion years old – the consensus view of the age of our solar system. (This is sometimes stated as “geologic time”). Presumably, the planets and moons all formed near the beginning, 4.6 billion years ago, and have been cooling off ever since (but see 09/12/2005). The small bodies should cool much more rapidly than the planets, because as radius decreases, surface area decreases by the square, but volume by the cube. The smaller the body, therefore, the greater the surface area for the interior heat to leak out. It’s interesting to watch how planetary scientists deal with surprises. It takes creative modeling to keep a moon active that should have frozen solid billions of years ago. Here’s what the planetary scientists have been up to: Enceladus: Stoke the Furnace: Throw some radioactive aluminum-26 into the core furnace; maybe that will help. Kerr reported that the Cassini team tried this to keep Enceladus warm enough to spout. Others find this interesting, but are not convinced: “At each stage [of the calculations], there are several knobs you can twiddle,” said Francis Nimmo (UC Santa Cruz). “There are so many free parameters it’s hard to make a strong statement.” Why the other nearby moons, such as Mimas (same diameter) are not erupting is a problem, but Enceladus does appear to have higher density and therefore a larger core for storing the hot Al-26. Nevertheless, the buzz around JPL is that nobody really has a good answer yet. Enceladus is a problem moon that has scientists scratching their heads. Update 03/09/2003: A JPL Press Release says there may even be liquid water erupting, like cold versions of the geysers of Yellowstone. “We realize that this is a radical conclusion,” said the imaging team lead. Science Dec. 10 had a special section on Enceladus with a dozen articles from the Cassini team exploring all aspects of the bizarre moon, from images to magnetic fields, from infrared and ultraviolet measurements to in situ particle measurements. “Finding such active geology on such a tiny moon is a big surprise,” said Joanne Baker in the introductory article. The only other active bodies in the solar system (Earth, Triton, Io) are larger than Enceladus. One model was offered to show how pockets of liquid water might form under the surface, but most scientists are saying this is a huge mystery. Iapetus: Slam on the Brakes: The big midriff bulge on Saturn’s yin-yang moon Iapetus presents a different problem. Scientists are dealing with this by having it start with a high spin rate with a good dose of aluminum-26 to keep it deformable. If tidal interactions with Saturn forced it to spin down rapidly, maybe the bulge was able to freeze in place. For more on Iapetus, see 01/07/2005. Titan: Hide the Goods: Planetary scientists were surprised, and perhaps disappointed, to find no liquid oceans of methane on the surface of Titan. The Huygens Probe landed on a dry lake bed, and the Cassini orbiter has failed to detect liquid on the surface. At current erosion rates, the atmospheric methane would be depleted in 10 to 100 million years – just 2% its assumed age. Clearly, scientists who want to keep Titan old need a source of methane to replenish the atmosphere. A new theory was just published in a letter to Nature this week.2 Jonathan Lunine, who has puzzled over Titan for over 20 years, has moved the methane reservoir underground: Saturn’s largest satellite, Titan, has a massive nitrogen atmosphere containing up to 5 per cent methane near its surface. Photochemistry in the stratosphere would remove the present-day atmospheric methane in a few tens of millions of years. Before the Cassini-Huygens mission arrived at Saturn, widespread liquid methane or mixed hydrocarbon seas hundreds of metres in thickness were proposed as reservoirs from which methane could be resupplied to the atmosphere over geologic time. Titan fly-by observations and ground-based observations rule out the presence of extensive bodies of liquid hydrocarbons at present, which means that methane must be derived from another source over Titan’s history. Here we show that episodic outgassing of methane stored as clathrate hydrates within an icy shell above an ammonia-enriched water ocean is the most likely explanation for Titan’s atmospheric methane. The other possible explanations all fail because they cannot explain the absence of surface liquid reservoirs and/or the low dissipative state of the interior. On the basis of our models, we predict that future fly-bys should reveal the existence of both a subsurface water ocean and a rocky core, and should detect more cryovolcanic edifices. (See also: ESA report and Science Now. For earlier stories on Titan, see 12/05/2005, 06/09/2005, 05/18/2005, 04/08/2005 and 03/11/2005). Cassini just made its 13th pass over Titan on Monday, and has many more passes this year, so we shall have to wait and see. For dramatic images of the most recent flyby, showing sharp boundaries between dark and light areas, see the Cassini Titan-11 flyby page and raw images: here is a good sample. While modelers have many dials and switches to fiddle with, one factor may be complicating the matter. Kubo et al. did experiments with a high-pressure form of ice known as Ice II and found that it deforms, or “creeps” much faster than previously thought – by up to two orders of magnitude, depending on the grain size. Their paper in Science3 was joined by a commentary from Peter Sammonds,4 who agreed that “This realization could change our understanding of the dynamics and evolution of these planetary bodies” What this implies specifically was not made clear. Perhaps it means that an icy moon’s interior would reach equilibrium in less time. You figure it out: Kubo et al. argue that grain size-sensitive creep of Ice I and Ice II plausibly dominates the evolution and dynamics of the interiors of the medium to large icy moons of the outer solar system. Ice II is considerably more viscous than Ice I. The transition from Ice I to Ice II, which occurs at depth, is accompanied by an increase in viscosity of four orders of magnitude. If grain size-sensitive creep does not operate, then the increase in viscosity would be six orders of magnitude. So if grain size-sensitive creep is not taken into account as a deformation mechanism, estimates for viscosities of the interiors of the icy moons are off by about two orders of magnitude. Such a difference would have profound implications for interpreting their evolution and dynamics. (See also Lawrence Livermore press release.) Whatever this means, modelers apparently didn’t set the knob right on this parameter before now. 1Richard Kerr, “How Saturn’s Icy Moons Get a (Geologic) Life,” Science, 6 January 2006: Vol. 311. no. 5757, p. 29, DOI: 10.1126/science.311.5757.29. 2Gabriel Tobie, Jonathan Lunine and Christophe Sotin, “Episodic outgassing as the origin of atmospheric methane on Titan,” Nature 440, 61-64 (2 March 2006) | doi:10.1038/nature04497. 3Kubo et al., “Grain Size-Sensitive Creep in Ice II,” Science, 3 March 2006: Vol. 311. no. 5765, pp. 1267 – 1269, DOI: 10.1126/science.1121296. 4Peter Sammonds, “Creep and Flow on the Icy Moons of the Outer Planets,” Science, No sooner did the word “water” appear in news reports about Enceladus, when reporters started talking about “life.” The press release twists the evidence for a young Enceladus into evidence for old evolution: “Scientists still have many questions. Why is Enceladus currently so active? Are other sites on Enceladus active? Might this activity have been continuous enough over the moon’s history for life to have had a chance to take hold in the moon’s interior?” Geological activity is not necessarily related to biological activity. Enceladus is not a case for OOL, but for YEC. Who are these spin doctors that write press blurbs like this gem from a Cassini press agent: “A masterpiece of deep time and wrenching gravity, the tortured surface of Saturn’s moon Enceladus and its fascinating ongoing geologic activity tell the story of the ancient and present struggles of one tiny world.” Get real. Does a model correspond to reality? This is an interesting question in philosophy of science. Some things are too difficult to observe and explain. A model can provide a “cartoon” of the problem to help make it manageable (or provide comic relief). Based on the model, scientists make predictions, or open the model to falsification. Confidence in the model grows if it passes these tests. Unfortunately, the more switches, dials and free parameters in the model, the more the model becomes immune to falsification, and the more other models might make similar predictions. Consequently, it becomes increasingly difficult to know if the model really connects with the real world, or is just a convenient fiction. What we wonder is why there is a padlock on the rheostat labeled, “age of the solar system.” Rumor has it the Darwin Party put it there.(Visited 23 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest By Chris ClaytonDTN Ag Policy EditorOMAHA (DTN) — President Donald Trump and European Union officials signed an agreement Friday at the White House that will nearly triple the volume of duty-free beef exports to Europe over time.Trump made the announcement surrounded by members of his administration and representatives from the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association and U.S. Meat Export Federation. Trump said Europe had not been treating U.S. beef producers fairly.“This is a tremendous victory for American farmers, ranchers and, of course, European consumers because American beef is the best in the world,” the president said.Trump said duty-free beef exports to the EU will increase by 46%. Over seven years, they will increase another 90%. By full implementation, the president said, duty-free exports of U.S. beef will increase from $150 million to $420 million.The president used the event to stress his administration is standing up for farmers. He pointed to the ongoing trade dispute with China. He cited Japan now allowing U.S. beef from older cattle, as well as opening up beef markets in areas such as Morocco and Australia. And the president pointed to $28 billion in aid that has come from his administration because of retaliatory tariffs, largely from China.“They (U.S. farmers and ranchers) were targeted, and we took care of our farmers and ranchers,” Trump said, adding farmers are “great patriots” that are “always targeted first” in trade disputes. “They are always targeted, but we take that target off their backs.”The agreement, which has been in the works for months, allows the U.S. a guaranteed portion of duty-free access into the EU for hormone-free beef. The American Farm Bureau Federation highlighted reports back in March that the agreement was close to being finalized.Jennifer Houston, president of NCBA, said it was great day for American cattle producers, and she thanked Trump for making the agreement happen.“For years, it has been difficult for us to get access to the European Union because of some non-tariff and restrictive tariff trade practices,” Houston said.Sen John Hoeven, R-N.D., spoke about access to markets and credited the president and his team for increasing market access, as well as providing more direct aid to producers.“USDA and the administration are standing up for our farmers while they are negotiating these kinds of agreements,” Hoeven said.Europe and the U.S. have battled over hormones in beef since the late 1980s, which included a case before the World Trade Organization that the U.S. won but the European Union failed to abide by. The EU then pushed for another WTO case against retaliatory measures put in place by the U.S. and Canada because the EU would not recognize science that made Europe’s ban on hormone treatments unjustifiable.The U.S. exported $8.3 billion in beef in 2018, of which the European Union accounted for roughly 3.5% of foreign sales. For the first five months of 2019, sales to the EU have totaled $80.6 million, down about 10% in value from last year, according to USDA data posted on the U.S. Meat Export Federation website.In 2009, the U.S. and EU reached a memorandum of understanding for a new tariff rate quota of hormone-free beef, with the U.S. agreeing to drop retaliatory tariffs against Europe as well.U.S. beef exports to the EU hit $272 million in 2015, but have declined since then, AFBF stated in its analysis. Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay each export more beef to Europe than the U.S., which often competes with Australia for the fourth ranking. By value, the U.S. accounts for about 9% of EU imports.Europe has two tariff rates for beef. One allows 45,000 metric tons of beef without a duty, but has no individual country carve-outs. A second quota allows 66,826 metric tons under a 20% tariff, of which the U.S. and Canada have a combined allocation of 11,500 metric tons.Sen. Pat Roberts, R-Kan., chairman of the Senate Agriculture Committee, applauded Friday’s announcement in a statement.“This agreement will provide some relief to American ranchers during an uncertain trading atmosphere,” Roberts said. “I appreciate the administration acting on my decades-long persistence in pushing for greater access for U.S. beef in the EU. I look forward to the upcoming EU Parliament vote to seal this deal.”Chris Clayton can be reached at [email protected] him on Twitter @ChrisClaytonDTN(AG/CZ)© Copyright 2019 DTN/The Progressive Farmer. All rights reserved.
Union ministers and civil society representatives in the Lokpal Bill joint drafting committee will meet on Monday in a last ditch effort to resolve contentious issues in the proposed anti-corruption legislation.The meeting comes amidst the persisting deadlock between the two sides and will be the eighth since April 16.If the discussions are not concluded on Monday, another round of talks is likely on Tuesday.Ahead of the meeting, senior ministers held discussions for nearly three hours on Sunday to finetune the government’s strategy.The meeting was chaired by Finance Minister and drafting committee chairman Pranab Mukherjee and attended by members Kapil Sibal, Salman Khurshid and Veerappa Moily.N. Narayanaswamy, Minister of State in PMO, also attended the meeting. Home Minister P. Chidambaram, who is another committee member, was not present.Key issuesSeveral issues have kept the government and civil society camps divided. Both are at loggerheads on whether to bring the prime minister and judiciary under the purview of the proposed Lokpal Bill.While the government has virtually ruled out bringing the post of prime minister under the Lokpal, Anna Hazare’s camp remains adamant on it. The Congress Core Group has favoured convening an all-party meet on the issue.Another bone of contention is the conduct of MPs inside Parliament. The government has maintained that this is not possible in the proposed legislation as it would amount to amending the Constitution.Hegde backs HazareMeanwhile, Karnataka Lokayukta Santosh Hegde, a member of the drafting committee, denied any split in the Hazare camp and said he will attend the meeting.advertisementHegde also backed Hazare’s planned fast from August 16. Hegde’s earlier comments on Hazare’s fast and absence from meetings had fuelled speculation of differences among the civil society representatives.- With PTI inputsFor more news on India, click here.For more news on Business, click here.For more news on Movies, click here.For more news on Sports, click here.
A lot has been rumoured about OnePlus 5 camera. Several renders and sketches of the OnePlus 5 camera has leaked recently, and almost all of them show the coming of dual rear camera set up. While other reports also suggest that the OnePlus 5 may come with dual cameras at the front as well. Another sketch of the OnePlus 5 leaks on Weibo, a Chinese micro blogging site which also shows dual cameras at the back at horizontal angle. To recall, earlier rumours suggested that OnePlus 5 will boast vertical dual camera s. But, that’s not what the new leak shows. A report coming from Android Authority last week confirmed thatOnePlus 5 with dual cameras. Retail box of the OnePlus 5 leaks, andunder the box it includes – “Dual camera. Clearer photos”. Well,OnePlus 5 coming with dual cameras was exclusively confirmed by IndiaToday Tech about a month ago. That being said, if OnePlus 5 really comes with dual camera set up, it will be the first ever flagship phone by the company to sport dual cameras. However, about the dual camera set up at the front, it is a bit unlikely. Alongside showing horizontal dual camera set up, a few camera samples of the OnePlus 5 also leaks. The leaked samples show that the OnePlus flagship phone may feature several features like — Monochrome Sensor, Portrait Mode, and more. The camera samples also suggest that the upcoming OnePlus 5 will be capable of capture excellent pictures under low light situation as well. If the rumours are to be believed, OnePlus 5 will have the best camera set up compared to other OnePlus flagship phones, much better than last year’s OnePlus 3 and OnePlus 3T. advertisementAnother report by GizmoChina confirms the OnePlus 5 resolution and also shows that the upcoming flagship phone will run on Hydrogen OS. GizmoChina reportedly managed to get a screenshot from OnePlus CEO which confirms 1920 x 1080p resolution for the OnePlus 5. On the other hand, OnePlus CEO and founder, Liu Zuohu posted screenshots of OnePlus 5 which shows that the phone runs on HydrogenOS. It further shows the phone that OnePlus 5 will come with VoLTE, 4G, and dual SIM support. OnePlus CEO – Pete Lau last week confirmed that the upcoming OnePlus 5 will be the slimmest flagship phone ever by the company. Furthermore, another leaked poster suggests that OnePlus 5 will be announced on June 15. However, no official words from OnePlus still now on the launch timeline.The only thing that is confirmed is that OnePlus 5 will come this summer . Other confirmed information about the flagship phone is Snapdragon 835 SoC, fingerprint scanner at the rear, and also that the OnePlus 5 will be the slimmest of all the OnePlus flagship phones. Further, it is also confirmed that OnePlus 5 will feature a camera developed in partnership with DxO . In terms of other specifications, OnePlus 5 is tipped to run on Android 7.1.1Nougat, and feature 5.5-inch full HD display, 8GB RAM, 64GB internalstorage, which can be expandable up to 128GB via microSD card.Last year’s OnePlus 3 and OnePlus 3T with no doubt were the best flagship phones by OnePlus. Both also gained wide popularity worldwide. However, OnePlus 5 is expected to be much better. This is also the phone that will succeed the OnePlus 3T and the OnePlus 3 which were the phones of the year in 2016. Be it camera, hardware, processor or the camera, both OnePlus 3 and 3T did well and the same is expected, rather much more of the OnePlus 5.Also Read: OnePlus 5 teased again, could be thinner and more compact than OnePlus 3TAlso Read: OnePlus 5 rumour roundup: Dual cameras, Snapdragon 835, funky colours, 4,000mAh battery and more
Sport has often been used in books, movies and pop culture a reference to as a metaphor for life. And just like it, sport presents the highs of high and the lows of lows. The story of Emiliano Sala is no different.Sala, the son of truck driver in Cululu in Santa Fe Province of Argentina, has been missing since he reportedly boarded a flight from Nantes in France to Cardiff in the United Kingdom.Sala secured a club record transfer (17 million euros or 19.3 million US dollars) from Nantes, after a phenomenal season in the French Ligue 1, and was on his way back to Cardiff to attend his first training session with his new teammates.He was travelling in a plane arranged by his agent on January 19 from France en route to Wales. On January 21, the news of his disappearance started to surface. The plane, according to reports, lost radar contact off the English Channel island of Guernsey (a small Island in the English channel) late on Monday.According to reports, Sala sent a distress call to his father in which he admitted that he was “scared” for his life.”Hello, my brothers, how are you? Boy, I’m tired. I was here in Nantes taking care of things, things, things, things, things, things, and it never stops, it never stops, it never stops. Anyway guys, I’m up in this plane that feels like it’s falling to pieces, and I’m going to Cardiff. [It’s] crazy, we start tomorrow. Training in the afternoon, guys, in my new team Let’s see what happens. So, how’s it going with you guys, all good? If in an hour and a half you have no news from me, I don’t know if they are going to send someone to look for me because they cannot find me, but you will know Dad, I’m scared!”- Sala said on whatsapp callExtensive searches were on by Guernsey Police and then called off, resumed and then called off again, without any sign of the plane or a person.advertisementOne week on, there has been no news of Sala or of the missing plane.Sala’s last social media post, in hindsight, was tragic. He posted a photo with his Nantes teammates with the caption – “La ultima ciao.” – which translates to “The ultimate goodbye.”He had met his new teams mates the day before Cardiff’s last match at Newcastle United, before going back to Nantes to say goodbye to his former club and gather his belongings.A shrine has since been established outside Cardiff’s stadium.Speaking ahead of Cardiff’s trip to Arsenal on Tuesday, their first match since Sala’s plane vanished, manager Neil Warnock said it had been the most difficult week of his career and admits he had questioned whether he could even carry on doing his job.”You think 24 hours a day about whether to carry on,” Warnock, told reporters.”It’s impossible to sleep. I’ve been in football management for 40 years and it’s been by far the most difficult week in my career, by an absolute mile.”It’s been a traumatic week and even now I can’t get my head around the situation.”All you need to know Emiliano Sala:Born Emiliano Raul Sala Taffarel in Argentina’s Santa Fe Province on October 31, 1990Began his playing career as a youth at Argentinian side Club Proyecto Crecer, before heading to France where he signed for Girondins de BordeauxThe striker made his debut for the club in 2012 before going on loan to French sides Chamois Niortais and CaenHe joined Nantes in 2015 and has scored 42 goals for the French Ligue 1 side so farSala had scored 12 goals this season in France’s Ligue 1 to rank fifth among top scorers behind Kylian Mbappe (17), Edinson Cavani (14), Neymar Jr and Nicolas Pepe (13)
zoomImage Courtesy: ICTSI Philippines-based International Container Terminal Services Inc. (ICTSI) has inaugurated the newly-expanded Batumi International Container Terminal (BICT) in Georgia.Both the waterside and landside areas of the multipurpose terminal were expanded with the aim of optimizing the processing of existing cargo flows and installing additional capacity.Following the expansion, the port’s annual container handling capacity was increased to 200,000 TEUs, it was noted.“A comprehensive dredging program, undertaken in cooperation with Batumi Sea Port, provides an 11.5-meter draught in the port’s fairway and alongside BICT’s quay line allowing easy access for feedermax vessels at the port and making it Georgia’s deepest draught port,” Hans-Ole Madsen, ICTSI’s senior vice president, commented.Landside improvements include a new container freight station with a 180-meter rail spur to facilitate cross-stuffing from containers to rail cars, according to Madsen.Compared to Potti – Georgia’s other major port – Batumi offers all-year round access without closures due to high winds.
God’s Love We Deliver honored former Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton with the first ever Michael Kors Award for Outstanding Community Service at the 7th Annual Golden Heart Awards dinner benefiting God’s Love We Deliver on Wednesday, October 16, 2013.“I am deeply honored to present Mrs. Clinton with this award that means so much to me,” says Michael Kors. “She is a dedicated and enormously effective humanitarian whose commitment to community service encompasses the whole planet. Thanks to her talent, devotion and unrelenting efforts on behalf of those with much less, she has improved millions of lives and helped lay the foundation for a better, more just world.”Among the stars to attend the event – held at Spring Studios in New York City – were Jennifer Hudson and models Karlie Kloss, Doutzen Kroes and Hilary Rhoda.In recognition of the important work of God’s Love We Deliver and the commitment of Michael Kors to help end world hunger, the Seventh Annual Golden Heart Awards dinner was held on World Food Day. God’s Love We Deliver board members Blaine Trump and Michael Kors helped serve as event co-chairs.God’s Love We Deliver also honored Aerin Lauder, Founder and Creative Director of AERIN and Style and Image Director of Estée Lauder, with the Golden Heart Award for Lifetime Achievement. Jeff Gates and Mike Moran, long-time volunteers and donors, received the Golden Heart Award for Outstanding Volunteerism.The Golden Heart Awards honor the important contributions of individuals, corporations and foundations to the organization’s cause. Funds raised at the event help ensure that no person in the tri-state area suffers the dual crises of hunger and life-altering illness.
Performers singing in at least five languages are among this year’s diverse selection of Polaris Music Prize nominees.Ten contenders were revealed for the $50,000 award, which goes to the best album from a Canadian artist or band, including the release Antisocialites from dream pop band Alvvays and Freudian by Toronto R&B singer Daniel Caesar.A number of Indigenous artists are represented among the short list. Newcomer Jeremy Dutcher duets with recordings captured on the East Coast a century ago in the Wolastoqey language, and rappers the Snotty Nose Rez Kids level honest takes on racism in Canada. Advertisement LEAVE A REPLY Cancel replyLog in to leave a comment Projects by Quebecois artists Jean-Michel Blais, Hubert Lenoir and Pierre Kwenders are also among the listed albums.Rounding out the bunch are releases from two returning Polaris contenders — U.S. Girls and Weaves — as well as indie rock newcomers Partner.The Polaris winner will be awarded on Sept. 17 at a gala presentation held in Toronto. Advertisement Polaris Music Prize nominees Molly Rankin of the band Alvvays, R&B singer Daniel Caesar, and First Nations opera singer Jeremy Dutcher are shown in a composite image. They are a selection of artists in the running for the annual $50,000 award. (Left: Winslow Townson/Invision/The Associated Press, middle/right: Chris Young/The Canadian Press) Advertisement Login/Register With: Facebook Twitter