Kenya Commercial Bank (KCB.rw) listed on the Rwanda Stock Exchange under the Banking sector has released it’s 2019 presentation results for the first quarter.For more information about Kenya Commercial Bank (KCB.rw) reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the Kenya Commercial Bank (KCB.rw) company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: Kenya Commercial Bank (KCB.rw) 2019 presentation results for the first quarter.Company ProfileKenya Commercial Bank (KCB) Rwanda Limited is a commercial bank offering financial solutions to private individuals and the corporate banking segment in Rwanda. KCB Bank Rwanda is a wholly-owned subsidiary of the KCB Group which is East Africa’s largest commercial bank by asset base. The Bank was established in 2008 after it was licensed by Rwanda’s banking regulator, the National Bank of Rwanda. It has 14 branches located in the main towns and cities of Rwanda as well as an extensive network of KCB Iwacu agents. Kenya Commercial Bank is listed on the Rwanda Stock Exchange
“COPY” “COPY” Houses ArchDaily Flex / Studio GilSave this projectSaveFlex / Studio Gil CopyHouses•Palmira, Colombia CopyAbout this officeStudio GilOfficeFollowProductsWoodGlassConcrete#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureHousesDabasHousingPalmira3D ModelingColombiaPublished on June 12, 2009Cite: “Flex / Studio Gil” 12 Jun 2009. ArchDaily. Accessed 12 Jun 2021.
Save this picture!© Hiroshi Tanigawa+ 24Curated by Hana Abdel Share ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/936705/sagamine-house-tomoaki-uno-architects Clipboard Products translation missing: en-US.post.svg.material_description Japan CopyHouses, Houses Interiors•Nagakute, Japan Manufacturers: Louis Poulsen Architects: Tomoaki Uno Architects Area Area of this architecture project Photographs Sagamine House / Tomoaki Uno ArchitectsSave this projectSaveSagamine House / Tomoaki Uno Architects “COPY” 2016 Photographs: Hiroshi Tanigawa Manufacturers Brands with products used in this architecture project Houses Projects Tomoaki Uno ArchDaily Lead Architects: ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/936705/sagamine-house-tomoaki-uno-architects Clipboard Area: 153 m² Year Completion year of this architecture project Products used in this ProjectHanging LampsLouis PoulsenLamp – PH ArtichokeDesign Team:Tomoaki Uno ArchitectsCity:NagakuteCountry:JapanMore SpecsLess SpecsSave this picture!© Hiroshi TanigawaText description provided by the architects. The site is an old developed residential area on the outskirts of Nagakute, next to Nagoya. A slightly conservative impression of the client’s couple wanted a modern house with exposed concrete.Save this picture!© Hiroshi TanigawaSave this picture!PlansSave this picture!© Hiroshi TanigawaThat’s why I designed the interior using white oak to suit the couple. I dared to lengthen the distance from the entrance to the living room, and made a plan that strongly emphasized the story.Save this picture!© Hiroshi TanigawaSave this picture!SectionsSave this picture!ElevationsSave this picture!© Hiroshi TanigawaThe living room is wide open to the east and a white oak frame is set around it to design the scenery like a painting.Save this picture!© Hiroshi TanigawaProject gallerySee allShow lessArchDaily China’s 2020 Building of the Year Awards are Now Open for NominationsArticlesOgimachi House / Tomoaki Uno ArchitectsSelected Projects Share Year: “COPY” Sagamine House / Tomoaki Uno Architects CopyAbout this officeTomoaki Uno ArchitectsOfficeFollowProductConcrete#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureHousesInterior DesignResidential InteriorsHouse InteriorsNagakuteOn FacebookJapanPublished on April 03, 2020Cite: “Sagamine House / Tomoaki Uno Architects” 02 Apr 2020. ArchDaily. Accessed 10 Jun 2021.
Children’s charity Barnardo’s is urging the British public to make the most of any unwanted Christmas presents they receive this year by donating them to charity.The scale of the missed opportunity for Barnardo’s and other charities is considerable. An online poll of 4,459 people by YouGov for the children’s charity found that 44% of people in the UK throw away or forget about an unsuitable gift. More than a third of those questioned (38%) simply put unsuitable presents in a cupboard and forget about them.Barnardo’s points out that it could sell these unwanted gifts via its national network of 720 shops to help vulnerable children and young people.Fortunately plenty of people say that they do hand on their unwanted gifts. One in 10 sell them online and 38% do give them to a charity shop.Unfortunately 12% of those surveyed admit that they have thrown away unwanted gifts.Unwanted Christmas presents can still do good if donated to charity, argues Barnardo’sLeast wanted presents?For the second year running’s Barnardo’s asked what people were least keen to receive at Christmas. The top results were:selfie stick (45%) (number one in last year’s poll too)musical socks (43%)bathroom scales (34%)set of saucepans (26%)animal slippers (26%)Worst gift givers?The survey also found that the worst relatives or friends at buying appropriate gifts were: Advertisement 198 total views, 2 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis23 Tagged with: christmas Donated goods Research / statistics Trading in-laws (8%)mother (6%)siblings (6%)father (5%)Barnardo’s Chief Executive, Javed Khan, said:“We all receive the occasional present that may not be our cup of tea. Rather than throw them away, or stick them in a cupboard you can support some of the UK’s disadvantaged children. Please take any unsuitable gifts to our stores and enjoy a warm feeling knowing your kind act is helping a child that needs your help.”£10 Re-Gift voucherTo encourage people to donate their unsuitable Christmas gifts to Barnardo’s the charity is offering a £10 ‘Re-Gift’ voucher to spend in store and online at High Street Fashion Retailer, Evans. The vouchers will be available from 24 December 2016 to 31 January 2017, and are redeemable until 28 February 2017.The research, which surveyed 4,459 people, found that their in-laws (8 per cent), mum (6 per cent), siblings (6 per cent) and dad (5 per cent) were the worst relatives/ friends at buying Christmas gifts. 197 total views, 1 views today Donate unwanted Christmas presents to charity, urges Barnardo’s AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis23 Howard Lake | 22 December 2016 | News About Howard Lake Howard Lake is a digital fundraising entrepreneur. Publisher of UK Fundraising, the world’s first web resource for professional fundraisers, since 1994. Trainer and consultant in digital fundraising. Founder of Fundraising Camp and co-founder of GoodJobs.org.uk. Researching massive growth in giving.
Cardiff’s alternative giving scheme sees 502 donations About Melanie May Melanie May is a journalist and copywriter specialising in writing both for and about the charity and marketing services sectors since 2001. She can be reached via www.thepurplepim.com. 152 total views, 2 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis23 Tagged with: contactless homelessness Wales / Cymru 151 total views, 1 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis23 Melanie May | 17 April 2018 | News A contactless donation point set up in Cardiff to help the city’s homeless raised 502 donations over the course of the campaign.The Give DIFFerently campaign aims to help frontline services combat rough sleeping across the city. Over three weeks in March, the campaign’s funder FOR Cardiff trialed a contactless donation point on the Hayes in the city, enabling people to donate £2 day and night with the tap of a card.In addition to the contactless technology, people have also been able to give to the campaign via text to donate.The trial initiative received 502 donations and following the successful response, FOR Cardiff is considering rolling out further technology later in the year.Adrian Field, Executive Director of FOR Cardiff, the business improvement district for the city, said:“We are delighted to see that the trial of this type of giving has been so well received in Cardiff. It is imperative to us that we invest in the longevity of the campaign. We are looking to work with local businesses to facilitate other contactless pay points and methods of alternative giving around the city.”Give DIFFerently was launched in November 2017 to encourage people in the city to think differently about how they give to those who are begging, homeless or at risk of homelessness.Managed by the Community Foundation in Wales, voluntary and third sector organisations can apply for grants of between £250 and £750. These will be allocated to help individuals who need it the most with 10% of the fund ring-fenced for organisations working with those at risk of Adverse Childhood Experiences.Main image: Cardiff Blue’s Sam Warburton donating via contactless to Give DIFFerently. Advertisement
Pasadena Will Allow Vaccinated People to Go Without Masks in Most Settings Starting on Tuesday Herbeauty8 Celebrities Who’ve Lost Their FandomsHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyThe Real Truth About The Pain Caused By MicrobladingHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeauty10 Female Celebs Women Love But Men Find UnattractiveHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeauty9 Of The Best Metabolism-Boosting Foods For Weight LossHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyHow To Lose Weight & Burn Fat While You SleepHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyKate Beckinsale Was Shamed For Being “Too Old” To Wear A BikiniHerbeautyHerbeauty Get our daily Pasadena newspaper in your email box. Free.Get all the latest Pasadena news, more than 10 fresh stories daily, 7 days a week at 7 a.m. Business Districts News USAID Awards Tetra Tech $46 Million Contract for Improved Urban Municipal Governance in Guatemala From STAFF REPORTS Published on Monday, March 13, 2017 | 10:59 am Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked * EVENTS & ENTERTAINMENT | FOOD & DRINK | THE ARTS | REAL ESTATE | HOME & GARDEN | WELLNESS | SOCIAL SCENE | GETAWAYS | PARENTS & KIDS 11 recommended0 commentsShareShareTweetSharePin it Tetra Tech, Inc. announced today that the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) has awarded the Company a $46 million contract to improve governance and the delivery of key municipal services, including improvements in small-scale infrastructure for urban municipalities in Guatemala where citizens feel unsafe. Under the Urban Municipal Governance contract, Tetra Tech will help USAID improve the capacity of municipal governments in Guatemala to respond to the needs of citizens.Working with the Government of Guatemala and local civic groups, Tetra Tech will support the strengthening of public financial systems and the development of service delivery plans for local governments to promote improved governance practices in the region. Tetra Tech will also provide technical assistance and much needed resources to establish services and upgrade existing infrastructure, such as parks, community centers, water systems, and sanitation facilities.“Tetra Tech is pleased to continue to support USAID’s work in Central America, including working to address the many challenges facing urban centers in developing countries today,” said Dan Batrack, Tetra Tech’s Chairman and CEO.About Tetra TechTetra Tech is a leading, global provider of consulting and engineering services. We are differentiated by Leading with Science to provide innovative technical solutions to our clients. We support global commercial and government clients focused on water, environment, infrastructure, resource management, energy, and international development. With 16,000 associates worldwide, Tetra Tech provides clear solutions to complex problems. For more information about Tetra Tech, please visit tetratech.com, follow us on Twitter (@TetraTech), or like us on Facebook. faithfernandez More » ShareTweetShare on Google+Pin on PinterestSend with WhatsApp,Virtual Schools PasadenaHomes Solve Community/Gov/Pub SafetyPASADENA EVENTS & ACTIVITIES CALENDARClick here for Movie Showtimes Community News Top of the News Make a comment Subscribe More Cool Stuff Community News Business News Pasadena’s ‘626 Day’ Aims to Celebrate City, Boost Local Economy Home of the Week: Unique Pasadena Home Located on Madeline Drive, Pasadena Name (required) Mail (required) (not be published) Website First Heatwave Expected Next Week
WhatsApp Further drop in people receiving PUP in Donegal WhatsApp Google+ 75 positive cases of Covid confirmed in North By News Highland – October 18, 2014 Homepage BannerNews Twitter Pinterest Facebook Twitter 365 additional cases of Covid-19 in Republic Man arrested on suspicion of drugs and criminal property offences in Derry Previous articleUCD defeat Derry City at Brandywell – Hutton’s reactionNext articleListen Back to the latest Weekend Edition News Highland Facebook Hundreds expected to turnout for Paedar O Donnell weekend in Dungloe The life and legacy of Peadar O’Donnell is being remembered in Dungloe this weekend with a series of debates which the organisers say provide an alternative to the McGill Summer School.Peadar O’Donnell was born in Meenmore in 1893, and died at the age of 93. He was a republican socialist, and an opponent of the treaty who was elected as a Sinn Fein TD for Donegal in 1923 while in prison.The weekend includes a number of local and national speakers. RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Main Evening News, Sport and Obituaries Tuesday May 25th Google+ Pinterest Gardai continue to investigate Kilmacrennan fire
Top Stories”Article 19(1)(a) Cannot Be Used As A Shield Against Commission Of Crime”: Mumbai Police Tells SC In Republic TV’s Plea Against Investigation In TRP Scam Case LIVELAW NEWS NETWORK14 Oct 2020 10:36 PMShare This – xThe Mumbai Police has filed an affidavit before the Supreme Court, urging it to dismiss, with exemplary costs, the petition filed by Republic TV ( (AGR Outlier Media Pvt Ltd) and Arnab Goswami challenging the Mumbai Police investigation against the channel in the TRP Scam case. The Mumbai Police has contended that investigation in to an alleged crime cannot be urged as a…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?LoginThe Mumbai Police has filed an affidavit before the Supreme Court, urging it to dismiss, with exemplary costs, the petition filed by Republic TV ( (AGR Outlier Media Pvt Ltd) and Arnab Goswami challenging the Mumbai Police investigation against the channel in the TRP Scam case. The Mumbai Police has contended that investigation in to an alleged crime cannot be urged as a ground for violation of Article 19(1)(a). “Article 19(1)(a) cannot be invoked by the Petitioners to sidestep, thwart and prevent any investigation by the competent investigating agency into alleged fudging of TRP ratings. The right under Article 19(1)(a) is not a shield which can be used against any a commission of crime under the extant criminal law of the land,” the Affidavit filed through ACP, CID states. It is pointed out that whether the allegations contained in the impugned FIR do or do not make out any offence as alleged by the Petitioners cannot be decided at this stage. “The investigation is still progressing in respect of FIR No. 143 of an a 2020. There is no exceptional circumstance whatsoever warranting any interference by this Hon’ble Court under Article 32 of the Constitution,” the agency insisted. The matter is listed for hearing today, before a Bench headed by Justice DY Chandrachud. The agency further informed the Court that summons has been issued to officers of several TV Channels, however, it is only Mr. Arnab, who is not extending cooperation. It submitted, “The line of interrogation cannot be controlled or dictated by the persons under investigation/ interrogation.” In this backdrop, the agency has also opposed the demand for a CBI enquiry into the matter, as no person has a “vested right” to be investigated by a particular agency. Furthermore, the agency has informed the Top Court that Mr. Arnab Goswami is directly interfering with the investigation and intimidating witnesses by issuing news release. “Petitioner No. 2 (Arnab Goswami) has been holding programmes and/or debates on the TV Channels owned by Petitioner No. 1 (ARG Outlier Media), where this case is being discussed and/or debated at length, with the Petitioner No. 2 being one of the anchors in these programmes/debates. The Petitioner No. 2 is also contacting various witnesses who have been summoned by me and discussing a and/or debating the contents of their statements on the TV programmes, owned and controlled by the Petitioners,” it submitted. It is further alleged that Arnab held a programme with certain employees and also issued a news release directly indicating that the said employees will not reveal certain information. Thus, it is contended that the impugned FIR is being attempted to convert into a “media spectacle”. It is submitted that such kind of a “media trial’ is antithetic to the process of free and fair investigation as also administration of justice. The FIR has been registered for the offences of Criminal Breach of Trust and Cheating under Sections 409, 420, 120(B), 34 of IPC and is being investigated by Mr. Shashank Sandbhor, ACP (DCB, CID). Next Story
ColumnsNew GoI Limitations On International Webinars: Not Just Freedom Of Speech, Even The Scientific/Academic Freedom At Stake! Prof. M Sridhar Acharyulu26 Feb 2021 5:32 AMShare This – xEngland was in height of civil war on 23rd November 1664. Famous writer John Milton was questioning the license Raj for printing books in historic writing of pamphlet called Areopagitica. Milton says: God endowed every person with the reason, free will, and conscience to judge ideas for themselves, so the ideas in a text should be rejected by the reader’s own choice, not by a…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?LoginEngland was in height of civil war on 23rd November 1664. Famous writer John Milton was questioning the license Raj for printing books in historic writing of pamphlet called Areopagitica. Milton says: God endowed every person with the reason, free will, and conscience to judge ideas for themselves, so the ideas in a text should be rejected by the reader’s own choice, not by a licensing authority. We have the history of Galilieo Galilei prosecuted by Church, 400 years ago for having said that the earth orbits the Sun against the religious belief. He was first summoned by the Roman Inquisition in 1616. He was warned not to espouse heliocentrism. Year 1616 ihas another similar historic incident of religious power harassing a scientist. The Church banned Nicholas Copernicus book “On Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres” published in 1543 explaining the theory that the Earth revolved around the Sun. Today we are hearing the news that permission of Ministry of External Affairs is needed for international webinars on science and other subjects. Article 19(1)(a) of our Constitution guarantees the independence of expression, i.e. freedom to publish without prior license, and Article 51A (h) says it shall be the duty of every Indian to develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform. This right and duty are also part of personal liberty within right to life under Article 21. The Union government, on January 15, 2021 made it mandatory for academics and organizers to obtain prior clearance from the Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) to hold international webinars or online seminars on various topics touching on (a) India’s security, (b) internal issues and on (c) subjects the government believes are sensitive. The guidelines dictate that when giving permission to hold the online event, the government has power to ensure the subject matter is not related to the country’s Northeast States – considered sensitive due to a long history of insurgency – the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir and the Ladakh region which saw clashes between Indian and Chinese troops in 2020. Curbs on freedom under (a) is very much required, but, on other two (b) and (c) amounts to ‘pre-censorship’ of spreading of academic knowledge, through debate and discussion. ‘Sensitive’ subjects include ‘political, scientific, technical, commercial, personal subjects with provisions of sharing of data in any form: presentations’. Earlier permissions were required to personal visits of foreign speakers. This is extended to virtual conferences while adding ‘inclusive’ expressions like ‘India’s internal matters’. The subject (c) i.e., “subjects the government believes are sensitive” is very expansive, wide and can include anything. The set of guidelines also mandate that the participants are expected not to broach issues related to India’s ‘internal matters’ or state security. The MEA approval will be required if these specific issues are likely to be debated at the international conference, the guidelines say. It is clear that MEA may not approve if such subjects are proposed, because once the debate is launched, it could be surely an analysis of entire issue. The Government also wants the names of all participants to be submitted in advance for the approval. The Ministry of Education has revised guidelines and issued after consulting the Ministry of External Affairs, which came into effect immediately after an Office Memorandum was notified on January 15. While we are ready for internationalizing market and trade, the Governments are unwilling to accept the criticism from beyond the borders of ‘nation’. After this, the public funded universities, professors, and administrators will now have to get prior approval from the ministry of external affairs (MEA) if they want to hold online international conferences or seminars that are centred around issues relating to the security of the Indian state or which are “clearly related to India’s internal matters”. With freedom index falling, the rulers further pushing it down by imposing curbs on debate in international webinars. Imposing restrictions on real seminars is difficult, but limiting the webinars is possible with controls on internet and Information & Communication Technology. India’s reputation is already down because of frequent shut downs of internet and blockade of mobile communications. Scientists wanted withdrawal of guidelinesThese rules govern online conferences, seminars and training programmes. It is mandatory to obtain clearance from MEA to invite scientists at the highest grades of seniority. These rules cover the conferences organized by publicly funded institutions. Many scientists also criticized these limitations on free scientific discussion at international for a. The President of Indian Academy of Sciences (IAS) Partha Majumdar wrote a letter to Education Minister Ramesh Pokhriyal requesting withdrawal of guidelines. This academy IAS “considered that the provisions of OM to be overly restrictive, lacking in clarity, and detrimental to the progress of science in India, including capacity building. We strongly urge upon you to withdraw the blanket restrictions and the requirement of permission on the organization of scientific discussion meetings and scientific training programs in India” said Majumdar. National Academy of Sciences and Indian National Science Academy also supported the stand of the IAS. The American Historical Association, the largest organization of professional historians in the world, with over 11,000 members spanning the globe, expressed grave concern about this policy requiring Indian scholars and administrators to obtain prior approval from the MEA for their intended virtual international conferences, seminars, or trainings. The AHA felt that this new policy is likely to affect a wide range of scholarly exchanges that are critical to the free international expression of ideas. By monitoring and potentially censoring or cancelling the virtual and online communications of scholars in India, the Ministry of Education threatens the very foundation of those exchanges. AHA further says: “The policy puts Indian scholars at a disadvantage in ongoing discussions among scholars in all disciplines, including history. It also deprives scholars in other countries (including members of the American Historical Association) of the benefits of the knowledge and insights that Indian scholars bring to the table. The AHA strongly maintains that government agencies should not intervene in the content of scholarly exchange. Such intervention would constitute arbitrary censorship and violate the principle of academic freedom.” Finally AHA said: “On behalf of this international network of scholars, we respectfully urge a reconsideration of the policy requiring Indian scholars and administrators to receive prior government approval for online or virtual academic conferences”. This letter was also signed by American Anthropological Association, American Sociological Association, American Studies Association, Central European History Society, College Art Association, Society of Biblical Literature and World History Association. JNU Professors opposeThe new restrictions mean academics and research scholars would be under pressure not to raise subjects or issues which could be construed as affecting ‘national security’, as explained by Prof. Alka Acharya, of the Centre for East Asian Studies, School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), New Delhi, who is an expert on Chinese studies. She further told University World News; “Everything can potentially have implications for security and organisers will be under great pressure to also screen participants who are known to have critical positions. This will certainly have an impact on free and frank discussions.” The discussion on the subject itself could not be presumed as threat to security of the nation. Even if the analysis is critical, it does not mean that debate is against the interests of nation. In fact factual analysis and appraisal of possible consequences is in the national interest. It will improve the understanding of the issue and help in developing the proper policy. She felt fundamentally, that is the aim of a debate, but states and governments may think otherwise. So the overall impact will be largely of a dampening kind. Nandini Sundar, Professor of Sociology in JNU apprehended: “Soon, no Indian academic will be allowed to log into a seminar or talk held elsewhere in the world without approval.” On the Twitter media, she said that “everything in the social sciences is ‘sensitive’ and touches on India’s ‘internal matters’.” Restrictions on foreign researchers Recently in November Prof Sundar attended a webinar on academic freedom in India organised by the United States-based organisation “Scholars at Risk”. She said “it was becoming harder for foreign research scholars to get research visas to India, and for a long time at my university we have not been able to have any seminars on Kashmir or on Naxalism”. Visas for participants in university-organised conferences from countries like Afghanistan, Pakistan and China have been subject to particular scrutiny for some time. However, participants denied a visa have in the past been able to participate via video link. Now the new guidelines would enable the Government to prevent virtual participation also. India does not stop the export of iron ore and such raw material to China, and import of various goods, as that agreement is part of world trade arrangements. But the government had already imposed restrictions on collaborations with Chinese institutions in 2019, requiring approval of Ministry of Home Affairs and MEA for any activities, even under existing agreements. It was also noticed that short conferences and workshops involving the participation of Chinese academics had been monitored by MEA. Besides, the collaborations with Chinese universities were further scaled down drastically under dictates of the Ministry after military clashes with China in June 2020. There was another attempt in October 2020 to prevent or restrict at the Memorandum of Understanding level itself. This time it came from the Education Ministry, which floated a plan to make it mandatory for Indian universities to obtain prior permission before signing any memoranda of understanding or holding activities with educational institutions from countries that share a land border with India – Afghanistan, Bangladesh, China, Myanmar, Nepal and Pakistan. The Government imposed restrictions earlier, on physical seminars also. Earlier guidelines required institutions to obtain authorisation for real seminars. Technology makes it easy for regulation and restriction. Technology earlier aided the spread and speed of the freedom but now becoming an easy tool in the hands of authoritarian regimes. The virtual events can be easily supervised live and inspected afterwards. They can be verified at leisure as video recordings are available. During Covid19 lockdowns and block downs, the academia were more active with the supportive facilitating technology. It was easy and really not expensive at all to organize online conferences, which accorded organisers greater freedom to invite foreign speakers. The same technology is becoming a weapon in the hands of authorities to curb such freedom. The names of all participants in such webinars will need to be approved in advance by the government. The guidelines are, however, silent on virtual events organised by private institutions and research organisations. It does not mean that they are free. It is perhaps more easy to restrict them because of their dependence on government for permissions, land, constructions and other regulatory controls. For academics, this is an unexpected and unprecedented restriction on academic freedom. They felt the latest restrictions on online conferences would surely hamper the growth of higher education in the country and curtail academic freedom as the guidelines also require MEA approval for events funded or sponsored from overseas, or involving foreign participation, or events that touch on sensitive presentations or subjects – political, scientific, technical, commercial or personal – with provisions for sharing data in any form. Data security restrictions University World News Asia Editor Yojana Sharma in her article wrote that presentations by research scholars and academics could also come under greater scrutiny as the January guidelines also advise organisers to ensure full compliance with India’s existing IT data security provisions, personal data and protection of other sensitive information, and also exercise an “appropriate level of scrutiny to identify the nature and sensitivity of data” or contents of presentations and information to be shared by the Indian side. Another major step that India initiated was banning the IT apps of China. In fact, such a ban was not opposed because it was done for national security. The conferencing platform Zoom, which became a very popular and widely used during the Covid 19 pandemic for online webinars. But it has come under the spotlight for monitoring of China-related online meetings. Ms Sharma wrote that it has also been known to channel user data via Chinese servers, although it is based in the US. The ministry also mandated “judicious selection” of IT apps, platforms or a medium for interaction. It said preference should be for apps having servers not controlled, hosted or owned by countries or agencies “hostile to India”, although the countries or agencies were not specified. Yojana Sharma quoted the proceedings of ‘Scholars at Risk’ which said: “While state authorities have a right to protect national security, they must ensure that relevant legislation and its enforcement are consistent with national and international legal obligations to protect the rights to academic freedom, freedom of expression and freedom of association.” Scholars at Risk said in its most recent Free to Think 2020 report’s section on India, noted and wrote a surge in incidents of authorities clamping down on academic freedom in the past two years. The Hindu reported on 21st February quoting Mr Vijaya Raghavan, principle scientific adviser to the Government of India, that the Office Memorandum might be reviewed and modified. Views are personal.(Author is a Former Central Information Commissioner and Professor of Law)Subscribe to LiveLaw, enjoy Ad free version and other unlimited features, just INR 599 Click here to Subscribe. All payment options available.loading….Next Story